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高二英语选修七unit 2 被动语态的用法附练习及答案

时间:2013-03-04 09:16  作者:admin  来源:www.2abc8.com

一、英语动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。以下情况使用被动语态:
1、不知道或没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者时。
The bridge was built last year.  这座桥是去年建造的。
He was elected chairman.  他被选为主席。
2、当更加强调动作的承受者时。此时动作的执行者由by引导置于谓语动词之后,不需要时可以省略。
The room hasn't been cleaned yet. 房间还没有打扫。
The tiger was killed by him. 老虎被他杀死了。
3、当动作的执行者不是人时,多用被动语态。如:
The window was blown by wind. 窗户被风吹开了。
The whole village has been washed away by the flood. 整个村庄都被洪水冲走了。
4、表示客观的说明常用"It is + 过去分词"句型。
It is said that Lucy has gone abroad. 据说露茜已经出国了。
It is believed that he is a spy. (=He is believed to be a spy.) 大家相信他是个间谍。
其它常见的"It is + 过去分词+ that"句型还有:
It is reported that… 据报道
It is said that… 据说
It is believed that… 大家相信
It is suggested that… 有人建议

二、主动语态变被动语态的方法
1、将主动句的宾语变为主语:
注意:如果主动句的宾语是代词,需将其由宾格变为主格。如:
Tom killed him. → He was killed by Tom.
2、将动词改为"be + 过去分词"。
They held a meeting yesterday. → A meeting was held by them yesterday.
他们昨天开会了。
3、将主动语态的主语改为by…放在谓语动词后。
注意:如果原主语是代词,则应由主格变为宾格。
He sang a song. → A song was sung by him.

三、基本结构
一般现在时 is / am / are + done
一般过去时 was / were + done
一般将来时 will / shall be + done
现在完成时 has / have + been done
过去完成时 had been done

将来完成时 will have been done
现在进行时 am / is / are + being done
过去进行时 was / were + being done
过去将来时 would / should be + done
不  定  式 to be done、to have been done
含情态动词 情态动词 + be + done、情态动词 + have been done
例句:
English is spoken by lots of people in the world. 世界上的许多人都说英语。
Class meeting is held every Thursday. 每周四都举行班会。
The classroom is cleaned by the students every day. 学生们每天都打扫教室。

The cup was broken by the boy. 杯子被那个男孩打碎了。
He was saved at last. 他最终获救了。
My bike was stolen. 我的自行车被偷了。

A speech will be given this afternoon. 今天下午有一个演讲。
A new road will be built next year. 明年要修一条新马路。

I thought thousands of people would be helped. 我认为将有数千人得到帮助。

The machine was being repaired at this time yesterday. 昨天这时,机器正在被修理。

The problem is being discussed now. 问题正在被讨论。
A bus is being pushed by the passengers. 乘客正在推一辆公共汽车。

Two hundred trees have been planted by now. 到现在为止,已经种了二百棵树了。
The book has been read many times by me. 这本书已经被我读了许多遍了。
Several soldiers have already been killed in the conflict. 在冲突中已经有几名士兵被杀害。

They said they had been invited to the party. 他们说已经被邀请参加晚会了。
She found the house had been destroyed by the storm. 她发现房子已经被暴风雨摧毁。
He had been tortured by the illness for many years before he died.
他在去世前已经被疾病折磨很多年了。

I was often made to do this and that by my brother when I was young.
小时候我常被哥哥使唤去做这做那。
She didn’t like to be treated as a child. 她不喜欢被当作小孩一样看待。
It is a good thing for him to have been criticized. 他受到批评是件好事。
She was the first woman to have been elected to such a post.
她是第一位当选这个位置的妇女。

The clock can be repaired. 这钟能修好。
I must be paid for this kind of job. 做这样的工作我一定得收取酬劳。

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